The Educational System in India

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The Educational System in India (Part 2)

If you missed Part 1, please click here to read The Education System in India (Part 1)

An Indian School

An Indian School

There are 28 states and 7 “Union Territories” in India. Each state  has its individual elected governments.

In contrast, the Government of India controls the Union Territories. The India school education policies and programmes are announced at a national level periodically. However, the state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes.


There are different organizations that play a vital role in the Educational system in India:


The Central Advisory Board of Education known as CABE was created 1935. This institution monitors all educational policies and programmes.


Origin of the CABE
The idea that there should be a central Advisory Board of Education was first put forward by the Calcutta University Commission (1917-19) which felt “that the Government of India could perform an invaluable function by defining the general aims of educational policy, by giving advice and assistance to local governments and to the development of educational ideas in the various provinces, and also elsewhere than in India.”



The National Council for Educational Research and Training

This institution commonly referred to as NCERT develops policies and programmes and has the task of preparing a National Curriculum Framework.


At a state level we can find the SCERT, an acronym for the State Council for Educational Research and Training.

The SCERTS follow the guidelines laid out by the NCERT but they have considerably freedom to make changes as they see fit. SCERTs work on educational strategies, develop curricula, discuss pedagogical schemes, try to improve and measure evaluation methodologies and many other less known tasks.

According to the Delhi Government Website:
The SCERT, Delhi an autonomous body, established in May, 1988 has been providing academic resource support to the Directorate of Education and the Education Departments of MCD and NDMC and Cantonment Board so as to achieve overall improvement in the quality of school education . The SCERT support is available through various programmes which include continuing education of teachers, development of appropriate material for teachers and students and undertaking research studies on the problems related to school education in Delhi. The SCERT also oversees and provides necessary guidance towards effective functioning of nine DIETs of Delhi, which among other activities also conducts two years pre-service Diploma Course in Elementary Teacher Education..


In India, by law, Education is free and compulsory for children below 14. 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) goes to education, and approximately half of that goes to primary education exclusively. This GDP percentage has been increasing steadily in the last 50 years.

The Great Education System in India (Hindi Language)

To be continued in part 3

The Educational System in India (1)

The Origins

In the old days, and here I am not referring to just to a few years ago but to ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education. Under this system, anyone who wanted to study went to a teacher’s residence and asked to be taught. If the guru accepted the student, the student would remain at the guru’s house and assist in all activities that were carried out in his residence.


The Ancient Gurukula System of Education could be the Future of Education?


This not only created a powerful bond between the guru and the disciple. In addition, it was a terrific hands-on life-lesson for the student to understand perfectly everything about managing a Place. The expert taught every little thing the boy or girl desired to study, ranging from Sanskrit to the scriptures to Mathematics and even Metaphysics. The pupil remained there as long as he or she wished or until the master decided he had taught everything there was to teach or that he could possibly teach. All the learning process was intently connected to nature and the aspects of real-life, and not restricted to memorizing and repeating theoretical information.


It was not until the 1830s that the modern school system was introduced in India. This came hand in hand with the inclusion of English as a second language, as fostered by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay. In this new system, the curriculum was limited to “modern” subject areas such as science and mathematics. Metaphysics, philosophy, and many other subjects were disregarded because they were considered unnecessary. Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student.


The first Board of Education was established in India in 1921 and in the year 1929, in Rajputana, it was established the Board of High School and Intermediate Education. Other boards were established later but it was not until 1952 when the charter of the board was modified and renamed as the :”Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).” This Board established the curriculum, books and the assessment system for all educational institutions affiliated with it. Today, not only there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board in India but also in other countries such as Afghanistan and Zimbabwe, to name just two.


Article 45 of the Republic of India Constitution requires “Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14.” Unfortunately, it’s easier said than done. This is still far from becoming a reality even 50 years after that, despite the government’s energetic action to enforce that in recent years. Primary education is regarded a Fundamental Right of everyone born in India, partly due to the pressures of economic development and the lack of a skilled and trained workforce.


Quoting Wikipedia on this issue:
In recent times, several major announcements were made for developing the poor state of affairs in the education sector in India, the most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government. The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP. (b) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education cess of all central government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty. (d) To make a right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.


This article will be continued in Part 2

Education in India

BBC Documentary on Education in India


Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.

India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7-10 age group, by 2011.[3] India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.[4] Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrolment in higher education has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrolment Ratio of 24% in 2013,[5] there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrolment levels of developed nations,[6] a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India’s comparatively young population.

At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government-run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group.[7] Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private. The private education market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion market.[8]

As per the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrolment above 96%. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 22.9 crore students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrolment, and a 19% increase in girl’s enrolment.[9] While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned particularly in its government-run school system. Some of the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day.[10] States of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools.[11]
It is important to clarify that while there are private schools in India, they are highly regulated in terms of what they can teach, in what form they can operate (must be a non-profit to run any accredited educational institution) and all other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation of government schools and private schools can be misguiding.[12]

In India’s education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. In universities, colleges, and similar institutions affiliated to the federal government, there is a maximum 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at the state level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, which is the highest percentage of reservations in India.



Education Loans in India

Education is the essence of life. The government of India is promoting education loans so that no student is denied the education they deserve. A student who has been admitted in any reputed institute whose degree / diploma is recognized by the University / Institute affiliated with any Central / State or recognized by AICTE (All India Council of Technical Education) statutory body and other institutes renown, is eligible for an educational loan.


Education Loans in India

Banks give loans to pay school fees, school, hostel, laboratory fees, the purchase of equipment, purchase of books, to meet other course-related expenses, etc.
When processing the bank loan application it takes into account the tenure of the course material, fees and other expenses related to the course and of course, for fixing the amount of the loan to be sanctioned.

At the time of the loan processing, you may decide to disburse the loan directly to the college / institute depending on the scale of fees of the university / institute. The institute may be abroad the bank will pay the fees in dollars or any other currency at the institute directly. The bank remittance charges a fee for this.

Students do not have to start paying the loan amount immediately as is done in other loans. Loan repayment usually begins one year after completion of the course or 6 months after getting a job, whichever comes first. In some cases, long-term courses have the loan can be used for long stays of up to 7 years. The repayment tenure also includes the moratorium period. Today most banks offer hassle free services and loans are being approved quickly.

The student who has taken loan also has the discretion to return the loan. If the student is coming from the family that is financially sound and then the loan annuities can be paid to complete the course then his / her parents can afford the loan. But this has to be completed with the bank for loan processing. Then there is an option to repay the loan after completing the course, this is given by the bank.

Let’s see how the loan is processed.
If you have taken a loan of Rs 5lac for 7 years and the interest rate is 13.25 percent per year. After completing the course, you take a job and get a package of Rs 5lac one year. The amount of loan EMI will be Rs 9164, each year it would become Rs 109,968.

Therefore, in the first year of depreciation, interest will be calculated Rs 64,350, this can be deducted from income while calculating tax. Thus you will save Rs 21,872. Thus, the effective interest rate will remain around 10.75 percent (instead of 13.25 percent) for that particular year.

In the event that at the time of the completion of the loan repayment moratorium is accepted in payment of interest, then you do not have to pay anything up to six months after the course is completed, or get a job (whichever comes first) . In this case the interest is compounded quarterly and added to the principal sum for reimbursement. The interest rate will be higher, but this can be useful for those who can not repay the loan during the course period.

For education credit banks charge no prepayment penalty, as in the case of other loans. If you are able to pay in advance at the beginning of his career can pay the entire outstanding loan amount without penalty.

The most important thing is to remember that the bank loan sanction in accordance with the mandate of the course in case you can not complete the course you will have to start paying the EMIs immediately. You can consult your bank in these cases, if you can give you a grace period, either to continue their studies or to repay the loan, but you have to make the final decision.

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